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What is the primary key of a database?

The database primary key is a field that allows you to uniquely identify a contact in a database.

Generally, on the platform, it is identified with the email field. When the primary key is email, two contacts with the same email cannot coexist on the same database.

The primary key of the database may still be modified.

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What are special lists and when to use them?

Needing to manage email marketing journeys that relate to different, or even diversified, complementary activities occurs quite frequently.

Think, for example, of an eCommerce portal for which it is necessary to manage the sending of specific messages: discounts and coupons for products in the catalog, sending information about new products, email notification for purchase confirmation and shipment ... and so on.

Special lists (we might also call them interest lists) are a useful tool for those who carry out this kind of business and have acquired profiling data on contacts who have explicitly expressed their desire to receive communications only of a certain type.

As you can guess, the use of special lists is ideal for avoiding the indiscriminate sending (and receipt by recipients) of any type of communication (especially undesired) using a single database.

The purpose of special lists is to send specific communications to targeted audiences, optimizing mailings according to the interests of the contacts, with adequate management of unsubscriptions.

A contact has requested to be unsubscribed from a database without using the "unsubscribe" link contained in the communication. How can I find them and fulfill this request?

All you need to do is apply an "email contains..." filter within the database and insert the contact’s data; once they have been identified, you can proceed with the status modification from the contact tab.

When I create a new contact the system asks me to set a password; do I have to enter one?

The password is a compulsory field required by the system, but it is to be used only for future access to external reserved areas (or authentication systems), for which a synchronization with the platform has been arranged.

If the password field for contacts is undefined when a new contact is created, the system will provide for its automatic validation.

What is the key field in databases?

The key field - specific to each database - by default is the email address.
If necessary, it is possible to change the key field to User name, mobile phone number (for sending SMS) or Fax number (for sending faxes).
In the event the user name is used, the email address may be unique for each contact or not.

What is the primary key of a database?

The database primary key is a field that allows you to uniquely identify a contact in a database.

Generally, on the platform, it is identified with the email field. When the primary key is email, two contacts with the same email cannot coexist on the same database.

The primary key of the database may still be modified.

If I have a dynamic audience as my communication target, at what point is the actual calculation of the number of contacts that will be reached made?

The number of contacts reached by the communication is evaluated when the communication is sent. It is therefore possible for it to vary from the moment of counting to that of the actual sending.

How can I create a new dynamic audience containing contacts who have not opened a communication that has been previously sent?

First, it is necessary to enable the filters on the communication email statistics, by going to the sent communication tab and clicking on the item mail before sending.

Once this is done, it becomes possible to create a dynamic audience and apply the rule:

Name journey > Communication name > open > is > false

Can a contact's master data be updated on multiple databases at the same time?

On the platform all databases are managed separately from each other. Therefore, even if two contacts are identical, if they are present in two or more databases they will be considered as different contacts.

There are essentially two options:

  • If you are looking for single contacts, you can search by address within the global database and see where these contacts are present.
  • If you need to make a substantial change, you can proceed with an update import from a different file for each database to be updated.

Can I send a DEM to all unsubscribed users asking them to confirm their unsubscription?

Absolutely not. It is neither technically nor legally possible to send any kind of communication to contacts who have already expressed a desire to unsubscribe.

Why is it that if I enable the Send Time Optimization option, not all my contacts receive the communication immediately?

In activating the Send Time Optimization, sending begins according to the options you configured (so if Immediate, the sending will start immediately).
But the contacts will not receive the communication at the same time.
Each of them will receive the communication taking into account the opening time of the previous communications.
So if you send your communication today at 6pm by activating the Send Time Optimization option, a contact who normally opens the communication at 12pm will receive it tomorrow at that time, because the system has calculated that statistically that is the moment in which the contact most frequently opens the communication you sent.
This same logic will be applied to all contacts in your database.
If the communication is the first a contact will receive, then the platform will calculate, based on system criteria, the best time to send the communication.

How do I include an icon or symbol in the subject line of my next communication?

It is possible to copy and paste a symbol in the subject string and set the value UTF-8 in the first step of the communication setup, in the advanced options section under the heading Message coding - International subject.

One of the most commonly used sites for retrieving emoticon codes is

Is it possible to make the mailto link open with a subject already filled in?

To create a mailto link that already has the subject filled in and possibly contains some text written by you, in the link URL you need to insert the following code:
a href=" subject&body=text email" target="blank"

If you want to insert it in a template object, create the link, insert the link name, and in the Web address string insert subject&body=text email.

Clicking on the link will open the email with the data pre-filled.


What are tags and how can I use them?

A tag is a keyword associated with one or more pieces of content (text, images, links, etc.) that describes the objects, making it possible, for example to view thematic reports, set search filters and create audiences of contacts that meet common criteria (e.g. no. of openings of messages with content associated with the tag "email marketing").

In addition to the content, the tag can also be associated with the entire communication, should you send messages with thematic focuses, on behalf of third parties and so on.
The most interesting aspect regarding tags - created or assigned during the communication composition phase - concerns behavioral filters, which allow for contact segmentation based on: no. of opened/clicked emails and no. of total registered openings/clicks for content with specific assigned tags. Audiences managed with logical conditions based on tags are of a "dynamic" nature, i.e. they are automatically updated by the system: this operation makes it possible to have constantly updated data on the number of contacts who prefer to receive and look into information regarding only certain topics.

I want to insert a placeholder into a database field. How do I do this?

Select the object into which you want to insert the placeholder. Click on the insert placeholder button. In the configuration window of the field, choose the type of placeholder, selecting from the database the values and for which field, and insert a default value that will be displayed if the database field chosen by you is not validated.

I would like to attach one or more files to my communication so that users can download them

Attaching files to your communication is not recommended because it greatly increases the risk that the communication will be blocked by spam filters. It is always preferable to include a link to the file to download. In any case, to attach a file, in the first step of the communication creation process, after saving the basic information, the Attachments section will appear where it becomes possible to select the files to attach to the communication.

When creating a new communication with an html import, the system returns an error

Verify that the .zipper file contains the dependencies (images, links, etc.) and only one .html or .htm file

Why is it not recommended to incorporate images into a communication?

Embedding images in a communication means that the receiving contact does not have to download them once the email is received.
While this might seem to be an advantage, it ends up not being the case.
Some email clients do not deliver large messages (such as those with embedded images) as they are considered spam. The result is a low delivery rate.
In addition, in the reports, openings are recorded at the moment of downloading the images. If the contact does not have to do this, a low open rate may be recorded on the communication.

Before sending, can I preview how the communication will be displayed for some mail clients?

Yes, in the menu just follow the path:
Journey Lab > Journey > Journey Name > Inbox Preview
The basic feature allows you to test on Gmail (Explorer), Libero Webmail and Outlook 2003 and after a few minutes (about 3-5 minutes for each client/webmail selected) the system will show the required preview images. In addition, you can activate the Advanced Inbox Preview feature that allows you to perform tests on more than 30 mail clients, webmail and mobile devices.

Is it possible to insert videos into a communication?

Unfortunately, only some webmail systems (e.g. Gmail, Libero, etc.) allow videos to be displayed in the message body.
There is no standard solution and as an alternative it is advisable to insert a clickable image - possibly with the "play" symbol in the middle or otherwise representing a player - and upload the actual video onto an appropriate platform (e.g. Youtube or Vimeo).

What is Multipart format?

This is a special format that includes both HTML and Text versions and, depending on the preferences set in your mail client, recipients will open messages in one or the other way.
This option is recommended to optimize message delivery and display.

I want to create/edit a text object but I don't know the html code. Can I still do it?

Yes, you can edit text objects using the html editor

Is it possible to move communications to journeys that are different from the ones where they were created?

It is not possible to move communications between journeys.
This is because the communications reports are aggregated to the journey and the movement would distort the data of the reports of the journey itself.
We do not recommend creating too many journeys if there is no real reason to do so.
Generally speaking, journeys can be created to subdivide communications according to genre, subject area, etc.

Why am I having trouble sending SMS with an international prefix?

It is not possible to automatically send SMS abroad because there are different regulations and laws on SMS in each country that must be observed.
Please contact your sales manager for more details about this kind of sending.

Is it possible to change the external background color of the communication template?

To change the color of the external background of the communication, in the editor click on the Properties button at the top left of the page.
In the window that opens, in the first line at the top (External background), enter the hexadecimal value of the color you want to use as the background.
Alternatively, by clicking inside the line, the color selector will appear, from which the relevant color can be chosen.

Is it possible to check an email’s size?

You can check the size of your communication in the communication control window at the fifth step of communication creation.
In the HTML Version section the second item, Size:, shows the size of the communication you are going to send.
The system will also return warning (yellow) or error (red) signals if the communication size exceeds 2 and 8 MB respectively.

I need to carry out some checks and changes to the content of a communication scheduled for sending. How can I do this?

In order to check the contents of an outgoing message, it is first necessary to stop its scheduling.
Once this operation has been carried out, the communication will return to draft status and it becomes possible to make any necessary corrections.

I want to increase the maximum width of my communication template. How can I do this?

The maximum size of the communication template is set to 600 pixels by default.
This size guarantees correct display on almost all available mail and webmail clients.
If you need to modify this, you have to directly change the template code.

Please note that modification of the template code is only advised for expert users because some characteristics could be altered that would affect not only its correct display but also the communication’s basic functionalities.

I have inserted placeholders into my draft communication. How can I make sure I have entered them correctly?

In order to verify that one or more placeholders have been correctly inserted and contain the expected values once received by the contact, several solutions can be applied.

  1. The first solution is to display the draft as a Preview for a contact.
    In the Communication Designer, select the Preview button in the top right corner. In the window that appears, click on the first line at the top (Preview for a contact); in the View as drop-down menu, select Recognized contact, then choose a database and a contact within it and finally the language. By clicking on the Refresh button in the top right corner, the draft will be shown as if the contact you selected were viewing it.
  2. You can run, again from the communication editor page, a quick test, choosing from the test sending options to send it as a recognized contact.
  3. You can check the correct functioning of the placeholders inserted by carrying out a test send (if in your database there are contacts of test users for whom you have previously inserted values that you want to be those shown in the placeholders), selecting the database to which the contact, recipient of the communication, belongs.

Is it possible to include a retina image in the communication?

In order to create a communication with images correctly displayed also on retina screens, we suggest you upload images twice the normal size.
For example, if you need to upload an image that in the communication needs to have a maximum width of 600 pixels, you should upload the image with a width of 1200 pixels (which the system will then automatically resize to 600).
Images will therefore not appear grainy on retina screens.

How can I include accented vowels in my communications?

It may be that in your communication, accented vowels are not displayed correctly. It may happen, for example, if they have been entered in various database text fields.

Make sure that the International UTF-8 Encoding has been set in the first step of the process of creating your communication, in the Advanced Options section.

How can I create a mailing to a single target by splitting it into multiple phases?

If you need to send a communication to a very large specific target, you can set up a wave mailing.
The sending of communications will be diluted according to the schedule that you set.

How do I resend a communication only to contacts who clicked on the previous one?

To do this, you first need to unlock the filters for the communication sent.
Follow the path:
Journey Lab > Journey > Journey Name > Sent Communications
Click on the communication name.
Under the two fields Description for Users and Description for Contacts there is the option Filters on communication email statistics.
Click on the Disabled item to enable the filters.
You can then enable a filter on the target of the type
communication > Communication name > clicked > true
to extrapolate the list of contacts who clicked on the previous communication and proceed to send them the new communication.

How do I get my company logo to appear in communications viewed in Gmail?

When a contact receives a communication in Gmail, along with the name of the sender they can also see the logo of the company that sent it.
Follow these steps:

  1. Access the page to register for Gmail services;
  2. Enter the required information. As email address, indicate the one from which communications are sent;
  3. Google will ask for confirmation of registration (by email or by email and SMS sent to a cell phone number for verification);
  4. Once your registration has been confirmed, you can access the page to edit your profile and add your company logo as a profile image
  5. In a few hours, your logo will become visible to all those to whom we have sent a communication
    in order for the logo to be displayed when accessing Gmail from a desktop, you must also register your company to the Google My Business service.

How can I exclude contacts from a mailing target?

If you need to send a communication to the Contacts of a Database, some of them, indicated for example in a list within a .CSV file, may have to be excluded from the target of the mailing itself.
We suggest you do this in two steps.
First of all, insert your contacts into a static Audience. You can do this by performing a contact import, where you choose the Update existing contacts operation. In the fourth step, following the field association step, activate the Add all contacts to an audience option, then create the static audience you wish to insert them into.
At the time of sending, when you select the mailing target, you will have to add an additional filter on the type target:
Static audiences > Audience name > is > does NOT belong
All contacts belonging to this audience will therefore be excluded from the final sending target.

Can I set up an automatic sending of the updated report for a journey or communication?

Yes! In the journey and communication report, in the right context menu, you can use Schedule Report to set up the sending of the updated report to certain email addresses, according to your preferred recurrence and frequency (daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly).

Why are there discrepancies between Google Analytics data and platform data?

You should keep in mind that Google Analytics and our platform use different counting methods.
The platform is based on clicks while Analytics is based on visits or sessions, which are updated once the user reaches a certain page or the tracking code is started.
For Analytics, a session or visit lasts up to 30min.
If a user clicks on the communication at 10:50am, closes the page at 10:55am, returns to the same page at 11:10am, the platform counts 2 clicks and Analytics counts 1 click.
It is also possible that a user clicks multiple times on the same link. In this case, the platform will record all clicks while Analytics records a single visit because the user is in the same session.
If a user clicks on a link from a communication, it is possible that they may leave before the page is loaded.
In this case, the tracking code cannot be started and therefore will not be able to pass any kind of data to the servers i.e. no statistics.
This will result in 0 visits from Analytics but 1 click from the platform.

Can I view contacts who open and read communications through mobile systems (iPhone, iPad, etc.)?

Yes, for each communication there is a report called Mail Client, which provides information on the operating system used.

Can I compare the results (Delivery, Open and Click Rate) recorded for one communication with those obtained by sending other communications?

Of course! For each communication, a comparison can be made with the average of the journey, the previous communication, or one of your choice among those sent.
In the communication summary report (showing the funnel), simply define the desired comparison by clicking on the Options button, found above the graph showing the results.
Some green, yellow or red arrows will be shown, which intuitively indicate whether the results obtained are better, in line or worse than the previous ones.
The comparison calculates the change in values (not the difference). For example, if in the previous communication the opening rate had been 15% and in the last communication it is 30%, then a green arrow indicates the value +100%.

If I allow recipients to perform social media sharing of the communication, are the results recorded?

Yes, for each communication, there is the Viral report that shows the number of clicks of registered contacts on the "forward to a friend" and "share on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn" links.
This report also shows graphs and tables for:
contacts who were first-time recipients or were already in the target audience of previous communications
contacts who opened for the first time or had opened previously.

What does the Opens-per-Opened data represent?

Opens-per-Opened takes into account the contacts that have recorded at least one opening of a communication and represents the average number of openings detected.
For example, if 3 contacts have opened a communication 1, 2 and 6 times respectively, then the value of the Opens-per-Opened is equal to 3 (total openings divided by 3 contacts).

What does the Clicks-per-Clicked data represent?

Clicks-per-Clicked records the contacts that have recorded at least one click of a communication and represents the average number of clicks detected. For example, if 3 contacts clicked on a communication 1, 2, and 6 times respectively, then the Clicks-per-Clicked value is equal to 3 (total clicks divided by 3 contacts).

What results does the Google Analytics integration allow me to track and how can I define the settings for this feature?

Google Analytics integration allows you to understand the profitability of the investment of your budget in email marketing activities in terms of visits on the domains for which user access and navigation activities are recorded.
Google Analytics records visits from many channels (direct access, SEM, SEO, email, affiliate programs, social networks, etc.), including communications.

Is it possible to compile all the data related to mailings from a certain date to the present in a single file?

You can export aggregated data directly from the Journey Summary Report by setting a sending date filter greater than the desired report start date. To do this, follow the path:
Insight > Journey > Journey Name > Summary.
This will take you to the funnel page, where you will need to click on options and set the filter with the first sending date, then click on apply.
Once the report is reloaded, you can analyze it to find the information you need.

You can change the view type by changing the views and export everything by clicking on the disk symbol.

In the summary report, the operating system tab has the entry "Undefined". Why can't the platform identify a contact's operating system?

The types of client and operating system of a contact are detected at the moment a contact downloads images.
If there are issues on the client side (therefore independent from the platform but linked, for example, to the fact that the contact has a block on image downloads), the information is not sent and it is not possible to identify the remote system.

If in the antispam check I get a result of 1.7 for one communication and 1.1 for another, is it more likely that the first communication ends up in Spam?

If the verification of a communication returns an antispam score that is higher than another, the probability of it being marked as spam could be higher.
It should be kept in mind, however, that each domain, provider or webmail could have different behaviors, take into account specific elements and use different algorithms, so the Spam score should be understood in indicative terms.

The antispam check is certainly a useful tool to check if it is possible to optimize the communication, to reduce the risk of being delivered as spam in general.

If you find that some communications are delivered as spam, we invite you to report it to our Help Desk service together with the problematic domains, so that we can carry out tests to check whether it is possible to identify the factors that caused the delivery as spam.

Are there any words to avoid, to not end up in spam?

In general, we advise against the excessive use, both in the subject and in the body of the email, of words or phrases that:

  • Suggest freebies (e.g. Free, 100% free, free money etc.);
  • Suggest discounts (e.g.. -50%, unlimited offers, super discount etc.);
  • Create a sense of urgency (e.g. hurry, limited time, etc.);
  • Guarantee gain and secure benefits (e.g. satisfaction guaranteed, earn extra money, etc.).
    In practice, however, there are few cases in which the mere presence of these single words or phrases causes delivery as spam.
    The anti-spam filters of the email providers are increasingly developed and consider as determining factors, to decide whether or not to filter an email as spam, the reputation of the sender and the engagement of their contacts (how much they actually interact with the received emails).

Can the presence of an emoji in the subject line cause it to be delivered as spam?

Emojis in the subject line do not cause delivery as spam, except in rare cases.
A direct link between emoji presence and spam delivery has not been demonstrated.
Of course, as for other elements such as capital letters, special characters, punctuation, etc., it is always a good idea to avoid overuse, especially because subjects containing too many emojis, special characters or sentences written in capital letters could be viewed with suspicion by the contacts receiving the communication who could then decide not to open it.

Can I use a "no-reply" address as the from address for my communications?

It is often convenient to set a "no-reply" address as the sender of your communications, so that you do not need to manage all the potential responses.
Although lawful, this practice is not recommended for several reasons:

  • Autoreplies (out of office) are often sent to the sender email address, as are those inviting you to write to a new address because the first one has been decommissioned. Not managing these means that you miss out on the opportunity to reach those contacts who want to receive your communications;
  • You communicate a lack of willingness to communicate with your contacts;
  • If contacts request explicit deletion and do not receive an answer, they could report the communication as spam or block the sender, damaging the reputation of the sender with a consequent negative impact on the delivery of future messages.

What is the Blacklist?

The Blacklist is a list of addresses (email addresses, telephone and/or fax numbers) for which the system does not send any communications. Blacklisted addresses are those that have registered too many hard bounces (e.g. incorrect email address) or that have reported a communication as spam. In order to improve the delivery rate, the system carries out an "automatic cleaning" of incorrect addresses (hard bounces) and - for security/protection reasons - also avoids further sending of communications for those who have clearly indicated that they do not wish to receive any other messages (spam reporting).

Bounces: what are these? What is the difference between hard and soft bounces?

Bounces are emails that don't reach their destination - they don't make it to the contacts they are sent to.
Generally speaking, there are 2 types of bounces: hard (definitive) and soft (temporary): the first are messages that bounce for non-transitory reasons (e.g. incorrect email address or non-existent domain), while the second show temporary problems (e.g. mailbox full, anti-spam filters, destination mail server unreachable, etc.).
The KPI that measures this is called the Bounce Rate, the ratio between undelivered emails and the number of emails sent.
As is logical, the lower the Bounce Rate, the better (a low Bounce Rate means that the database of recipients is well managed and maintained over time, with good "cleaning out" of email addresses).


Following the submission of a survey, how can I tell who has already filled it out?

To see the contacts that have completed the survey, you must go to the Results section and filter for valid compilation.

Why is it that sometimes I make changes to my survey, click publish, and can't find them anymore?

In order to proceed correctly with the creation and publication of a survey, first of all you need to set up the questions in the Questions section.
Once the basic configuration is complete, save and publish the survey. After publishing you can set the conditions and actions, and once finished click on Save.
NB: do not click on the publish button again or all the advanced configurations you made will be canceled and the basic configuration of the survey you created in the questions section will be reloaded.

I have created a survey that acts as a registration form for an event. Is it possible to have some fields pre-filled?

If the survey field is linked to the database field and is validated in the contact's master file, they will see the field pre-filled when landing from the communication you send to invite them to fill out the survey.

Why can't I find the link to surveys in my menu?

The survey module on the platform is optional. To activate it, contact your sales representative.

After the last question of the survey, I would like to insert a link to the privacy policy and the acceptance checkbox. How can I do this?

It is possible to insert, for example, on the last page of the survey, a link to the regulations in force and add a checkbox that must be filled in.

Why is it that even though the fields in the survey are correctly associated with those in the reference database, they are not updated?

In order for the database fields to be updated with the values of the survey compilations, it is necessary to add to the Complete button (or the one that concludes the survey compilation) the post-compilation action Edit contact data.
To do this, click on the wrench symbol on the Complete button.
In the window that opens, go to the List of post-compilation actions section and click on the Add action button. Select the Edit contact data action, name the action, click Next and then click Save and Save again in the actions window.

Why are the advanced settings lost when I duplicate a survey?

When you duplicate a survey, only its definition (i.e. the content created in the Question section) is copied over.
Before proceeding with the advanced modifications, it is necessary to publish the survey so any copied settings would be automatically canceled.

Can I change question type?

It is not possible to change question type once saved. You need to delete it and create a new one.

Is it possible, after completion, to redirect a contact to a data collection form?

After completing a Survey, a contact can be redirected to a new page.
This is usually a thank you page that serves to communicate that the survey has been completed successfully.

On this page, usually accessible from the Survey Results section, the data collection form can be made available.
Alternatively, create a new page where the form can be inserted and link it to the thank you page, or have the finish button redirect the contact directly to that page.

I created a Survey and published it but now I need to change the order of the questions. How can I do this?

To modify the order of survey questions after the survey has been published, you need to access the questions section of the survey.
You can then move the question order around as desired.
Once the modifications have been completed, saving the survey is not enough; you must republish it.

NB: when a survey is republished, all the modifications made in the advanced mode section (e.g. the insertion of visibility conditions or key navigation) are canceled.

I'm preparing a survey but when sending myself the quick test I see that the CONFIRM button and the thank you page seem to be disconnected

To test a survey, we recommend that you send the communication containing the survey link as a test mailing and not as a quick test.
This is because the quick test shows the communication preview and does not simulate a real mailing as the test mailing does.

How can I validate data in a text field?

To have a control over the values that your contacts can enter in a text field: you can select from the Field Format the Regular Expression. The Regular Expression defines a function that takes a string as input and returns a value (yes/no) as output to validate the data entered by the contact.
For example, to avoid contacts writing B2C email domains (Gmail, Outlook, Hotmail), because you want them to only put in the company email, connect the field to a Database Email Contact Field and write the following syntax:

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